Mikhail Gorbachev’s biological death is his second death. Symbolically, he died with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. His role was a purely negative one, that of a vanishing mediator: He “tore down the Wall,” he set in motion the disappearance of the Communist system, and he is remembered and praised for allowing this disappearance to take place in a peaceful way. Gorbachev played his role honestly—so what went wrong? Why did peretstroika turn into katastroika?