Philosophy and Revolution: From Hegel to Sartre, and from Marx to Mao

Few thought systems have been as distorted and sometimes misconstrued as those of Marx and Hegel. Philosophy and Revolution, presented here in a new edition, attempts to save Marx from interpretations which restrict the revolutionary significance of the philosophy behind his theory. Developing her breakthrough on Hegel’s Absolute Idea, Raya Dunayevskaya, who died in the June of 1987, aims at a total liberation of the human person―not only from the ills of a capitalist society, but also from the equally oppressive state capitalism of established communist governments. She assumes within her theory of class struggle issues as diverse as feminism, black liberation, and even the new nationalism of third world countries. Moreover, Dunayevskaya combines within herself an incorruptible objectivity with a passionate political attitude, making this work a vibrant and concrete discussion of the vicissitudes of society, justice, equality, and existence.

Table of Contents

New Introduction, 1982

1. Absolute Negativity as New Beginning: The Ceaseless Movement of Ideas and of History
A. The Phenomenology of Mind, or Experiences of Consciousness
B. The Science of Logic, or Attitudes to Objectivity
C. The Philosophy of Mind: A Movement from Practice?
2. A New Continent of Thought: Marx’s Historical Materialism and Its Inseparability from the Hegelian Dialectic
A. The 1840s: Birth of Historical Materialism
B. The 1850s: The Grundrisse, Then and Now
1. “Progressive Epochs of Social Formations”
2. The “Automaton” and the Worker
C. The Adventures of the Commodity as Fetish
3. The Shock of Recognition and the Philosophic Ambivalence of Lenin

Introduction: On the Eve of World War II: Depression in the Economy and in Thought
4. Leon Trotsky as Theoretician
A. The Theory of Permanent Revolution
B. The Nature of the Russian Economy, or Making a Fixed Particular into a New Universal
C. Leadership. Leadership
5. The Thought of Mao Tse-tung
A. Discontinuities and Continuities
1. The Sino-Soviet Conflict
2. That Crucial Year 1965 and “The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.” 1966-69
B. From Contradiction to Contradiction to Contradiction
C. Alienation and Revolution
1. Hong Kong Interview
2. Sheng Wu-lien: The Challenge from the Left
6. Jean-Paul Sartre Outsider Looking In
A. “The Progressive-Regressive Method”
B. The Dialectic and the Fetish

7. The African Revolutions and the World Economy
A. Neocolonialism and the Totality of the World Crisis
B. New Human Relations or Tragedies Like Biafra?
8. State Capitalism and the East European Revolts
A. The Movement from Practice Is Itself a Form of Theory
B. Theory and Theory
C. Once Again, Praxis and the Quest for Universality
9. New Passions and New Forces: The Black Dimension, the Anti-Vietnam War Youth, Rank-and-File Labor, Women’s Liberation

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